George Nathaniel Curzon, 1. Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, KG, GCSI, GCIE, PC (* Januar in Kedleston Hall, Derbyshire; † März in London) . Entdecken Sie das Erbe von Curzon. Geographische Lage, Geschichte, Traditionen, gastronomische Spezialitäten, unumgängliche Stätten zum Entdecken. Curzon Dax ist ein Trill und Bürger der Föderation. Der Wirt Curzon ist der siebte Wirt des Dax-Symbionten von bis zu seinem Tod Er trinkt.
Curzon once wrote on a document "I rise from the perusal of these papers filled with the sense of the ineptitude of my military advisers", and once wrote to the Commander-in-Chief in India, Kitchener , advising him that signing himself "Kitchener of Khartoum" took up too much time and space, which Kitchener thought petty Curzon simply signed himself "Curzon" as if he were an hereditary peer, although he later took to signing himself "Curzon of Kedleston".
He resigned in August and returned to England. A major famine coincided with Curzon's time as viceroy in which 1 to 4.
Arthur Balfour 's refusal to recommend an earldom for Curzon in was repeated by Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman , the Liberal Prime Minister, who formed his government the day after Curzon returned to England.
In deference to the wishes of the King and the advice of his doctors, Curzon did not stand in the general election of and thus found himself excluded from public life for the first time in twenty years.
It was at this time, the nadir of his career, that he suffered the greatest personal loss of his life. Mary died in and Curzon devoted himself to private matters, including establishing a new home.
Curzon successfully became elected as Chancellor of Oxford after he won by votes to against Lord Rosebery. In , Curzon was elected a representative peer for Ireland, and thus relinquished any idea of returning to the House of Commons.
In —10 he took an active part in opposing the Liberal government's proposal to abolish the legislative veto of the House of Lords, and in was created Baron Ravensdale , of Ravensdale in the County of Derby, with remainder in default of heirs male to his daughters, Viscount Scarsdale , of Scarsdale in the County of Derby, with remainder in default of heirs male to the heirs male of his father, and Earl Curzon of Kedleston , in the County of Derby, with the normal remainder, all in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
He became involved with saving Tattershall Castle, Lincolnshire , from destruction. This experience strengthened his resolve for heritage protection.
On 5 May , he spoke out against a bill in the House of Lords that would have permitted women who already had the right to vote in local elections the right to vote for members of Parliament.
Like other politicians e. Chamberlain , Arthur Balfour Curzon favoured British Empire efforts in Mesopotamia , believing that the increase in British prestige would discourage a German-inspired Muslim revolt in India.
Curzon was a member of the Dardanelles Committee and told that body October that the recent Salonika expedition was "quixotic chivalry".
Haig was impressed by Curzon's brains and decisiveness, considering that he had mellowed since his days as Viceroy the then Major-General Haig had been Inspector-General of Cavalry, India, at the time and had lost "his old pompous ways".
At the War Policy Committee 3 October Curzon objected in vain to plans to redeploy two divisions to Palestine, with a view to advancing into Syria and knocking Turkey out of the war altogether.
Curzon's commitment wavered somewhat as the losses of Third Ypres mounted. During the crisis of February Curzon was one of the few members of the government to support Robertson, threatening in vain to resign if he were removed.
Despite his continued opposition to votes for women he had earlier headed the Anti-Suffrage League , the House of Lords voted conclusively in its favour.
She was the wealthy Alabama -born widow of Alfredo Huberto Duggan died , a first-generation Irish Argentinian appointed to the Argentine Legation in London in Elinor Glyn was staying with Curzon at the time of the engagement, and read about it in the morning newspapers.
Grace had three children from her first marriage, two sons, Alfred and Hubert , and a daughter, Grace Lucille. Alfred and Hubert, as Curzon's step-sons, grew up within his influential circle.
Curzon had three daughters from his first marriage, but he and Grace despite fertility-related operations and several miscarriages did not have any children together, which put a strain on their marriage.
Letters written between them in the early s imply that they still lived together, and remained devoted to each other.
In , Curzon was passed over for the office of Prime Minister partly on the advice of Arthur Balfour , who joked that Curzon "has lost the hope of glory but he still possesses the means of Grace".
He restored it extensively, then bequeathed it to the National Trust. Curzon did not have David Lloyd George 's support. Curzon and Lloyd George had disliked one another since the Parliament Crisis.
The Prime Minister thought him overly pompous and self-important, and it was said that he used him as if he were using a Rolls-Royce to deliver a parcel to the station; Lloyd George said much later that Churchill treated his Ministers in a way that Lloyd George would never have treated his: Despite their antagonism, the two were often in agreement on government policy.
Likewise, Curzon was grateful for the leeway he was allowed by Lloyd George when it came to handling affairs in the Middle East.
Other cabinet ministers also respected his vast knowledge of Central Asia but disliked his arrogance and often blunt criticism.
Believing that the Foreign Secretary should be non-partisan, he would objectively present all the information on a subject to the Cabinet, as if placing faith in his colleagues to reach the appropriate decision.
Conversely, Curzon would take personally and respond aggressively to any criticism. It has been suggested that Curzon's defensiveness reflected institutional insecurity by the Foreign Office as a whole.
During the s the Foreign Office was often a passive participant in decisions which were mainly reactive and dominated by the Prime Minister.
Although during the subsequent Russo-Polish War , Poland conquered ground in the east, after World War II , Poland was shifted westwards, leaving the border between Poland and its eastern neighbours today approximately at the Curzon Line.
Curzon was largely responsible for the Peace Day ceremonies on 19 July It was so successful that it was reproduced in stone, and still stands.
In , during World War I, as Britain occupied Mesopotamia modern Iraq , Curzon tried to convince the Indian government to reconsider his scheme for Persia modern Iran to be a buffer against Russian advances.
However, the agreement of August was never ratified and the British government rejected the plan as Russia had the geographical advantage and the defensive benefits would not justify the high economic cost.
Small British forces had twice occupied Baku on the Caspian in , while an entire British division had occupied Batum on the Black Sea, supervising German and Turkish withdrawal.
In February, while Curzon was on holiday, Wilson persuaded the Cabinet to allow withdrawal, but Curzon had the decision reversed on his return, although to Curzon's fury he thought it "abuse of authority" Wilson gave Milne permission to withdraw if he deemed it necessary.
At Cabinet on 5 May Curzon "by a long-winded jaw" in Wilson's description argued for a stay in Batum. After a British garrison at Enzeli on the Persian Caspian coast was taken prisoner by Bolshevik forces on 19 May , Lloyd George finally insisted on a withdrawal from Batum early in June For the rest of Curzon, supported by Milner Colonial Secretary , argued that Britain should retain control of Persia.
When Wilson asked 15 July to pull troops out of Persia to put down rebellion in Mesopotamia and Ireland, Lloyd George blocked the move, saying that Curzon "would not stand it".
In the end financial retrenchment forced a British withdrawal from Persia in the spring of Curzon helped in several Middle Eastern problems: According to Sir David Gilmour , Curzon "was the only senior figure in the British government at the time who foresaw that its policy would lead to decades of Arab—Jewish hostility".
During the Irish War of Independence , but before the introduction of martial law in December , Curzon suggested the "Indian" solution of blockading villages and imposing collective fines for attacks on the police and army.
In , he was the chief negotiator for the Allies of the Treaty of Lausanne. Curzon was thus able to remain Foreign Secretary when Bonar Law formed a purely Conservative ministry.
Curzon had expansive ambitions and was not much happier with Bonar Law, whose foreign policy was based on "retrenchment and withdrawal", than he had been with Lloyd George.
However he provided invaluable insight on the Middle East and was instrumental in shaping British foreign policy in that region. On Bonar Law 's retirement as Prime Minister in May , Curzon was passed over for the job in favour of Stanley Baldwin , despite having written Bonar Law a lengthy letter earlier in the year complaining of rumours that he was to retire in Baldwin's favour, and listing the reasons he should have the top job.
This decision was taken on the private advice of leading members of the party including former Prime Minister Arthur Balfour. Balfour advised the monarch that in a democratic age it was inappropriate for the Prime Minister to be a member of the House of Lords , especially when the Labour Party , which had few peers, had become the main opposition party in the Commons.
In private Balfour admitted that he was prejudiced against Curzon, whose character was objectionable to some.
George V shared this prejudice. A letter purporting to detail the opinions of Bonar Law but actually written by Baldwin sympathisers was delivered to the King's Private Secretary Lord Stamfordham , though it is unclear how much impact this had in the final outcome.
Curzon, summoned by Stamfordham, travelled to London by train assuming he was to be appointed Prime Minister, and is said to have burst into tears when told the truth.
He later described Baldwin as "a man of the utmost insignificance", although he served under Baldwin and proposed him for leadership of the Conservative Party.
Curzon remained Foreign Secretary under Baldwin until the government fell in January In March Curzon suffered a severe haemorrhage of the bladder.
Surgery was unsuccessful and he died in London on 20 March at the age of His coffin, made from the same tree at Kedleston that had encased his first wife, Mary, was taken to Westminster Abbey and from there to his ancestral home in Derbyshire , where he was interred beside Mary in the family vault at All Saints Church on 26 March.
Upon his death the Barony, Earldom and Marquessate of Curzon of Kedleston and the Earldom of Kedleston became extinct, whilst the Viscountcy and Barony of Scarsdale were inherited by a nephew.
The Barony of Ravensdale was inherited by his eldest daughter Mary and is today held by his second daughter Cynthia's great-grandson, Daniel Nicholas Mosley, 4th Baron Ravensdale.
There is now a blue plaque on the house in London where Curzon lived and died, No. This title was created in the Peerage of Ireland to enable him to potentially return to the House of Commons , as Irish peers did not have an automatic right to sit in the House of Lords.
His was the last title to be created in the Peerage of Ireland. In , he was elected a representative of the Irish peerage in the British House of Lords, from which it followed that he would be a member of the House of Lords until death; indeed, his representative peerage would continue even if as proved to be the case he later received a United Kingdom peerage entitling him to a seat in the House of Lords in his own right.
All of these titles were in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Upon his father's death in , he also became 5th Baron Scarsdale , in the Peerage of Great Britain.
The title had been created in Few statesmen have experienced such changes in fortune in both their public and their personal lives.
Sir David Gilmour, 4th Baronet , concludes:. Curzon's career was an almost unparallelled blend of triumph and disappointment. Although he was the last and in many ways the greatest of Victorian viceroys, his term of office ended in resignation, empty of recognition and devoid of reward Finally, after he had restored his reputation at Lausanne , his ultimate ambition was thwarted by George V.
Critics generally agreed that Curzon never reached the heights that his youthful talents had seemed destined to reach. This sense of opportunities missed was summed up by Winston Churchill in his book Great Contemporaries The morning had been golden; the noontide was bronze; and the evening lead.
But all were polished till it shone after its fashion. Everything was in his equipment. You could unpack his knapsack and take an inventory item by item.
Nothing on the list was missing, yet somehow or other the total was incomplete. His Cabinet colleague The Earl of Crawford provided a withering personal judgement in his diary; "I never knew a man less loved by his colleagues and more hated by his subordinates, never a man so bereft of conscience, of charity or of gratitude.
On the other hand the combination of power, of industry, and of ambition with a mean personality is almost without parallel. I never attended a funeral ceremony at which the congregation was so dry-eyed!
The first leader of independent India, Jawaharlal Nehru , paid Curzon a surprising tribute, referring to the fact that Curzon as Viceroy exhibited real love of Indian culture and ordered a restoration project for several historic monuments, including the Taj Mahal: After every other Viceroy has been forgotten, Curzon will be remembered because he restored all that was beautiful in India.
Curzon Hall , the home of the faculty of science at the University of Dhaka , is named after him. Lord Curzon himself inaugurated the building in Curzon Gate , a ceremonial gate, was erected by Maharaja Bijay Chand Mahatab in the heart of Burdwan town to commemorate Lord Curzon's visit to the town in , which was renamed as Bijay Toran after independence of India in It has since been renamed Kasturba Gandhi Marg.
The apartment buildings on the same road are still named after him. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. British Viceroy of India and Foreign Secretary.
Indian famine of — Post World War I. Post World War II. Curzon Line Oder—Neisse line — Territorial evolution of Germany Territorial changes of the Baltic states.
The End of an Epoch. Modernity, Masculinity, and the Nation-state , p. Oscar Browning — , who had been sacked from Eton in September under suspicion of paederasty, partly because of his involvement with young George Nathaniel Curzon" in Michael Kaylor, Secreted Desires p.
Longmans, Green, and Co. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. The Journal of Modern History. Curzon, Persia and the Persian Question Volume 1.
The First Partition of Bengal: Most were regional, but the death toll could be huge. Thus, to take only some of the worst famines for which the death rate is known, some , died in the North West Provinces, Punjab, and Rajasthan in —38; perhaps 2 million in the same region in —61; nearly a million in different areas in —67; 4.
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Peterloo 12A An epic portrayal of the events surrounding the infamous Peterloo Massacre, where a peaceful pro-democracy rally at St Peter's Field in Manchester turned into one of the bloodiest and most notorious episodes in British history.
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